file: timo01.html
date: 09 Jan 2005
html editing of original text by Francis Massen

Sent Sunday, October 24, 2004 to
European Union’s Future Action on Climate Change Web Forum 

Timo Hämeranta, LL.M., Finland, EU

Disclaimer: I am private citizen and represent only myself, not any organisation or interest group and I do not promote or lobby anyone’s interests or receive funding from anybody. My only interest and ambition is the Search for Scientific Truth. In scientific issues I am a middleman of knowledge, in practical and political ones a stakeholder.


I’d like to direct your attention to the following points
- The scientific basis of the alleged enhanced greenhouse gas effect caused by human-induced CO2 emissions has outdated according to the most recent scientific studies
- New recommendations to policymakers needed based on valid scientific understanding
Most unambiguously I do advice you to take this Submission to the Agenda of the stakeholder Conference to be held in November 2004, and to forward this to the scientific advisers of EU policymakers and advice them to closely study and examine the almost 400 scientific peer-reviewed papers, other scientific papers, overviews, presentations and books listed below.

Contents of Submission:

A. Summary

B. Current Scientific Understanding

C. Recommendations to Policymakers

D. References

A. Summary

The scientific basis to tackle the climate change allegedly caused by human-induced CO2 emissions has collapsed.
The newest scientific findings prove that current or near-future (i.e. in the next 100 yrs) CO2 emissions cause no dangerous anthropogenic interference with or dangerous perturbation in the climate system. The EU decisions in force and in preparation to tackle climate change are scientifically outdated and obsolete. The only scientifically justified resolution is to let the Kyoto Protocol expire in 2012. Instead, in EU it is advisable e.g. to prepare to both near-future warming and near-future cooling, to create proper early warning systems of climate disasters, to diminish the dependence of imported energy sources, e.g. from Russia and Middle-East, and finally one of the main messages is: “Clean, healthy, unpolluted air to everyone is one of the Basic Human Rights”.

B. Current Scientific Understanding

UNFCCC’s objective is to achieve stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.
So far, nobody has been able to scientifically define what that level should be. Scientific constraints have been focused on how human-induced CO2 emissions influence on and make perturbations in the climate system. In this respect, huge advances have been made in recent years.
Referring to the almost 400 references below the newest scientific findings and conclusions are as follows:

1. In the past, global temperature has fluctuated, warmed and cooled, irrespectively to the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere. Temperature has even cooled, although CO2 has increased. The same has happened in recent decades, and most probably will happen in future, too.

Conclusion: CO2 is not the main driver in climate variations.

2. The infamous ‘Hockey Stick’ adopted by the IPCC TAR 2001 is flawed. Temperature did not cool steadily the almost 1000 years before modern Industrial Age. Instead, during the Middle Ages temperature was as warm or even warmer as it is today, and during the Little Ice Age it was substantially cooler than presented in TAR. The case has been the same during the whole current post-glacial age.

Conclusion: The current warm phase is in no way ‘unprecedented’ in climate history.

3. The enhanced AGHG effect should manifest itself first and most prominently (x 2-3) in Polar Regions. No such amplification has been observed. Instead, during last decades e.g. Greenland and Antarctica have cooled.

Conclusion: There is no Polar amplification.

4. The enhanced AGHG effect is based on the assumption that troposphere should warm first and more than surface. This assumption is now obsolete.

Conclusion: There is no dangerous or even remarkable enhanced AGHG effect.

5. Prevailing understanding of climate sensitivity to CO2 doubling (e.g. +1,4 C – + 5,8 C in IPCC TAR 2001) is flawed. The actual sensitivity is 0,3 C.

Conclusion: The influence of increasing CO2 on global warming is almost indiscernible.

6. Prevailing estimation of the CO2 residence time in the atmosphere is 5-200 years (IPCC TAR 2001). The actual residence time is 5-40 years.

Conclusion: The short residence time still diminishes CO2’s influence on climate.

7. Prevailing understanding of the influence of the so-called feedbacks argues that their net effect is positive i.e. strongly amplifying the effect of increasing CO2. In fact, the net feedback effect of all the climate forces and interactions is negative.

Conclusion: The feedback mechanisms diminish even more the miniscule warming influence of increasing CO2.

8. Natural climate variations are still unpredictable, not very well known and poorly understood, and impossible to parameterize to models. For example, just for the moment we may be heading for a long natural warm era or for the next little ice age. Nobody knows for sure.

Conclusion: To prepare only for global warming is scientifically unjustified. 

9. Current General Circulation Models are useful tools when climatologists study different climatic phenomena, but no all-inclusive model is available in foreseeable future. GCMs are unable to predict anything about future climate.

Conclusion: All the modelled projections, scenarios and ‘storylines’ presented have no predictive capability. Nobody knows how climate changes in the near or far future. 

10. Climate is a non-linear, chaotic and turbulent system influenced by external and internal forces all of which and their interactions are either unknown or not yet known with precision needed. Climatologists have not been able to formulate any all-inclusive Theory of Climate.

Conclusion: More research is needed before any predictions, conclusions or recommendations about the climate system and for human actions are in any way scientifically plausible and justified. 

Scientific Summary: The current prevailing scientific basis of the EU decisions in force and in preparation is obsolete and outdated. 

C. Recommendations to Policymakers

In current circumstances, when future is unknown and we have no predictive ability, policymakers should prepare to both warming and cooling alternatives.
But, what slight or strong warming or cooling in fact and exactly (how, when, where) causes in Europe is not at all clear. For the moment, no reliable probability analysis exists.
More research, better preparedness to changes and early warning systems are urgently needed.
When scientists have concentrated in human CO2 emissions, the newest findings have clarified the situation:
- Current or near-future (i.e. in the next 100 yrs) CO2 emissions cause no dangerous anthropogenic interference with or perturbation in the climate system.
- Policymakers have no scientific reason to try to limit CO2 emissions anymore.
- Policymakers ought to let the Kyoto Protocol expire in 2012.

Instead, new Recommendations to EU Policymakers for Climate Strategies are e.g. as follows:

1. It is advisable to concentrate in scientific studies which improve the early warning systems of climate disasters, e.g. heavy storms, floods, heat waves, blizzards, black ice etc.
2. It is advisable to concentrate in limiting real air pollutants. (CO2 is not a pollutant, but the very important fertilizer.)
3. It is advisable to improve the energy efficiency and refinement filters of bio and fossil fuel burning.
4. It is advisable to enlarge the use of nuclear power.
5. It is advisable to develop new clean energy sources.
6. It is advisable to diminish the dependence of imported energy sources, e.g. from Russia and Middle-East.
7. In poor, undeveloped and developing countries it is advisable in EU development aid programs to concentrate in raising the standard of living e.g. by burning cheap coal with effective refinement filters, instead of by burning wood and forests.

Climate Policy Summary:

Climate within EU fluctuates unpredictably and it is reasonable to prepare to both near-future warming and near-future cooling.
Priority no 2 is the proper early warning systems of climate disasters.
Priority no 1 is to diminish the real air pollutants from or outside EU. The main message is:
“Clean, healthy, unpolluted air to everyone is one of the Basic Human Rights”.

D. References 

(in alphabetical order)

Abarca del Rio, Rodrigo, D. Gambis, D. Salstein, P. Nelson, A. Dai, 2003. Solar activity and earth rotation variability. Journal of Geodynamics Vol. 36, No 3, pp. 423–443, October 2003, online <>

Agusti-Panareda, A. and Thompson, R. 2002. Reconstructing air temperature at eleven remote alpine and arctic lakes in Europe from 1781 to 1997 AD. Journal of Paleolimnology 28: 7-23.

Ahlbeck, Jarl, 2001. Carbon Dioxide Sink 1960-2000 and Model Projections to 2100: a Statistical Mass Transfer Analysis, online <> 

Ahlbeck, Jarl, 2001. Absorption of Carbon Dioxide from the Atmosphere, online <>

Ahlbeck, Jarl, 2001. The Carbon Dioxide Thermometer: Updated, online <>

Ahlbeck, Jarl, 2002. Comment on "Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981-1999" by L. Zhou et al., JGR 107, D11, 4128, doi:10.1029/2001JD001389, 2002107, June 14, 2002.

Ahn, Jinho, M. Wahlen, B. L. Deck, E. J. Brook, P. A. Mayewski, K. C. Taylor, and J. W. C. White, 2004. A record of atmospheric CO2 during the last 40,000 years from the Siple Dome, Antarctica ice core. J. Geophys. Res. – Atm., 109, D13305, doi:10.1029/2003JD004415, July 15, 2004 

Akimoto, Hajime, 2003. Global Air Quality and Pollution. Science Vol. 302, No 5651, pp. 1716-1719, December 5, 2003 

Alexander W.J.R., 1995. Floods, droughts and climate change. South African Journal of Science August 1995

Alexander W.J.R., 2004. Climate change – there is no need for concern. Science in Africa April 2004, online <>

Alexander W.J.R., 2004. Floods, droughts, poverty and science. Science in Africa September 21, 2004, online <>

Anderson, Theodore L., Robert J. Charlson, Stephen E. Schwartz, Reto Knutti, Olivier Boucher, Henning Rodhe, Jost Heintzenberg, 2003. Climate Forcing by Aerosols--a Hazy Picture. Science Vol. 300, No. 5622pp. 1103-1104, , May 16, 2003, online <>

Andreae, Meinrat O. et al., 2004. Smoking Rain Clouds over the Amazon. Science Vol. 303, No 5662, pp. 1337-1342, February 27, 2004, <

Arnfield, A. John, 2003. Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 23, No 1, pp. 1-26, January 2003, online < >

Baker, Andrew C. et al., 2004. Coral reefs: Corals' adaptive response to climate change. Nature Vol. 430, No 7001, p. 741, August 12, 2004

Balling, Robert C., Jr., and S. Sen Roy, 2004. A spatial entropy analysis of temperature trends in the United States. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L09201, doi:10.1029/2004GL019630, May 1, 2004

Bamber, Jonathan, William Krabill, Vivivenne Raper, and Julian Dowdeswell, 2004. Anomalous recent growth of part of a large Arctic ice cap: Austfonna, Svalbard. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L12402, doi:10.1029/2004GL019667, June 25, 2004

Bao, Yang, Achim Bräuning and Shi Yafeng, 2003. Late Holocene temperature fluctuations on the Tibetan Plateau. Quaternary Science Reviews Vol.22, No 21-22, pp. 2335–2344, Nov-Dec 2003

Barber, Valerie A., Glenn Patrick Juday, Bruce P. Finney, Martin Wilmking, 2004. Reconstruction of Summer Temperatures in Interior Alaska from Tree-Ring Proxies: Evidence for Changing Synoptic Climate Regimes. Climatic Change Vol. 63, No 1-2, pp. 91-120, March 2004

Bard, Edouard , Frauke Rostek, Guillemette Ménot-Combes, 2004. A Better Radiocarbon Clock. Science Vol. 303, No 5655, pp. 178-179, January 9, 2004

Battarbee, R.W., Grytnes, J.-A., Thompson, R., Appleby, P.G., Catalan, J., Korhola, A., Birks, H.J.B., Heegaard, E. and Lami, A. 2002. Comparing palaeolimnological and instrumental evidence of climate change for remote mountain lakes over the last 200 years. Journal of Paleolimnology 28: 161-179.

Belmiloud, Djedjiga, Roland Schermaul, Kevin M. Smith, Nikolai F. Zobov, James W. Brault, Richard C. M. Learner, David A. Newnham, and Jonathan Tennyson, 2000. New Studies of the Visible and Near-Infrared Absorption by Water Vapour and Some Problems with the HITRAN Database. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 27, No 22, pp. 3703-3706, November 15, 2000

Berger, André and Marie-France Loutre, 2002. An exceptionally long interglacial ahead? Science, Vol. 297, No 5585, pp. 1287 - 1288, August 23, 2002

Berger, André, and Marie-France Loutre, 2003. Climate 400,000 years ago, a key to the future? In Earth’s Climate and Orbital Eccentricity: The Marine Isotope Stage 11 Question. Geophysical Monograph 137, A. Droxler, L. Burckle and R. Poore (eds.), American Geophysical Union, pp. 17-

Berger, W.H. and von Rad, U. 2002. Decadal to millennial cyclicity in varves and turbidites from the Arabian Sea: hypothesis of tidal origin. Global and Planetary Change 34: 313-325.

Berger, W.H., A. Schimmelmann and C.B. Lange, 2004. Tidal cycles in the sediments of Santa Barbara Basin. Geology: Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 329–332, April 2004

Berner, Ulrich; Streif, Hansjörg, ed., 2000. Klimafakten" Der Rückblick - Ein Schlüssel für die Zukunft [Climates of the Past: A key to understanding our future climate.] .Schweizerbart'sche Verlagsbuchhandlung, Science Publishers, Stuttgart, Germany, 2000 

Black, David E., Robert C Thunell, Alexey Kaplan, Larry C. Peterson, and Eric J. Tappa, 2004. A 2000-year record of Caribbean and tropical North Atlantic hydrographic variability. Paleoceanography, 19, PA2022, doi:10.1029/2003PA000982, June 23, 2004 

Boberg, Fredrik, and Lundstedt, Henrik, 2002. Solar Wind Variations Related to Fluctuations of the North Atlantic Oscillation. GRL 29, 15, 2002, online <>

Bobylev, Leonid P., Kirill Ya. Kondrayev and Ola M. Johannessen, 2003. Arctic Environment Variability in the Context of Global Change. Springer & Praxis Publishing, December 2003

Bond, Gerard C., Kromer, B., Beer, J., Muscheler, R., Evans, M.N., Showers, W., Hofmann, S., Lotti-Bond, R., Hajdas, I. and Bonani, G. 2001. Persistent solar influence on North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Science 294: 2130-2136, December 7, 2001

Bond, Tami C., David G.Streets, Kristen F. Yarber, Sibyl M. Nelson, Jung-Hun Woo, and Zbigniew Klimont, 2004. A technology-based global inventory of black and organic carbon emissions from combustion. J. Geophys. Res. – Atm. Vol. 109, No. D14, D14203, 10.1029/2003JD003697, July 24, 2004

Bradley, Jr., Robert L., 2003. Climate Alarmism Reconsidered. Institute of Economic Affairs, London 2003, online <>

Bradley, Jr., Robert L., and Richard W. Fulmer, 2004. Energy: The Master Resource. An Introduction to the History, Technology, Economics, and Public Policy of Energy. Kendall/Hunt Publishing, 250 pages, 2004, also online <>

Brandsma, T, G. P. Können, H. R. A. Wessels, 2003. Empirical estimation of the effect of urban heat advection on the temperature series of De Bilt (The Netherlands). International Journal of Climatology Vol. 23, No 7, pp. 829-845, June 15, 2003

Bratcher, Amy J. and Giese, Benjamin S. 2002. Tropical Pacific decadal variability and global warming. GRL Vol. 29, No 19, p. 1918, doi:10.1029/2002GL015191, October 8, 2002.

Brönnimann, Stefan, J. Luterbacher, J. Staehelin, T. M. Svendby, G. Hansen and T. Svenøe, 2004. Extreme climate of the global troposphere and stratosphere in 1940-42 related to El Niño. Nature Vol. 431, No 7011, pp. 971-975, DOI:10.1038/nature02982, October 21, 2004

Bucha, V. and Bucha Jr., V., 1998. Geomagnetic forcing of changes in climate and in the atmospheric circulation. Journal of Atmospheric and Terrestrial Physics 60: 145-169.

Bärring, Lars, and Hans von Storch, 2004. Scandinavian storminess sincce about 1800. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20202, doi:10.1029/2004GL020441, October 23, 2004

Carlo, Piero Di et al., 2004. Missing OH Reactivity in a Forest: Evidence for Unknown Reactive Biogenic VOCs. Science, Vol. 304, No 5671, pp. 722-725, April 30, 2004

Carslaw, K.S., Harrizon, R.G. and Kirkby, J. 2002. Cosmic Rays, Clouds, and Climate. Science Vol 298, Nr 5599, pp. 1732-1737, November 29, 2002

Castagnoli, G. C., Bonino, G., Taricco, C. and Bernasconi, S.M. 2002. Solar radiation variability in the last 1400 years recorded in the carbon isotope ratio of a Mediterranean sea core. Advances in Space Research 29: 1989-1994, 2002.

Castles, Ian and David Henderson, 2003. The IPCC Emission Scenarios: An Economic-Statistical Critique. Energy & Environment Vol. 14, No 2&3, pp. 159-186, April 11, 2003

Castles Ian and David Henderson, 2003. "Economics, emission scenarios and the work of the IPCC" in Energy & Environment Vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 415-435, July 2003

Cerveny, R. S. and Shaffer, J.A., 2001. The moon and El Niño. Geophysical Research Letters 28: 25-28, 2001 

Chappell, Adrian and Clive T. Agnew, 2004. Modelling climate change in West African Sahel rainfall (1931-90) as an artifact of changing station locations. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 24, No 5, pp. 547-554, Published Online April 8, 2004

Chase, Thomas N., Roger A. Pielke Sr., C. Castro, 2003: Are present day climate simulations accurate enough for reliable regional downscaling? Water Resources Update No 124, pp. 26-34, May 2003, online <>

Chase, Thomas N., Roger A. Pielke Sr, B. Herman and X. Zeng, 2004. Likelihood of rapidly increasing surface temperatures unaccompanied by strong warming in the free troposphere. Climate Research Vol. 25, No 3, pp. 185–190, January 2004, online <>

Chaves, Rosane R., and Paulo Nobre, 2004. Interactions between sea surface temperature over the South Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03204, doi:10.1029/2003GL018647, February 11, 2004

Chavez, Francisco P., John Ryan, Salvador E. Lluch-Cota, and Miguel C. Ñiquen, 2003. From anchovies to sardines and back: multidecadal change in the Pacific Ocean. Science Vol. 299, No 5603, pp. 217-221, January 10, 2003

Chen, Dake et al., 2004. Predictability of El Niño over the past 148 years. Nature Vol. 428, pp. 733-736, April 15, 2004

Chen, Ge, Jun Ma, Chaoyang Fang and Yong Han, 2003. Global Oceanic Precipitation Derived from TOPEX and TMR: Climatology and Variability. Journal of Climate: Vol. 16, No. 23, pp. 3888–3904, December 1, 2003

Chen, J. L., C. R. Wilson, X. G. Hu, and B. D. Tapley, 2003. Large-scale mass redistribution in the oceans, 1993–2001, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No 20, p. 2024, doi:10.1029/2003GL018048, October 16, 2003.

Cheng, Minkang, and Byron D. Tapley, 2004. Variations in the Earth's oblateness during the past 28 years, JGR – Solid Earth, 109, B09402, doi:10.1029/2004JB003028, September 16, 2004

Christensen, Jens H., and Ole B. Christensen, 2003. Climate modelling: Severe summertime flooding in Europe. Nature 421, 805 - 806, February 20, 2003

Christy, John R. 2000. Global Climate Change: Scientific and Social Impacts. A Personal View. Bridges. 7, 39-57.

Christy, John R., Roy W. Spencer, William D. Braswell, 2000. MSU tropospheric temperatures: dataset construction and radiosonde comparisons. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 17: 1153-1170.

Christy, John R. et al., 2001a. Differential Trends in Tropical Sea Surface and Atmospheric Temperatures since 1979. Geophysical Research Letters 28, 183-186, January 1, 2001

Christy, John R., 2001b. Validity of Global Climate Change Study Tool doubted. UniSci January 9, 2001

Christy, John R., 2001c. The Gospel According to John. An interview in Discover Vol. 22 No. 2, February 2001

Christy, John R., 2001d. The Future Outlook is Fine. An interview in The Times February 20, 2001

Christy, John R., 2001e. Layer-Mean Global Temperature from Satellites. First International Conference on Global Warming and the Next Ice Age, Dalhausie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, August 19-24, 2001

Christy, John R., 2002a. Raw Empirical Data Not Everything In Climate Study. UniSci January 16, 2002, online <>

Christy, John R., 2002b. When Was The Hottest Summer? A State Climatologist Struggles for an Answer. BAMS Vol. 83, No 5, pp. 723-734, May 2002

Christy, John R., 2003a. Irrigation Blamed for Warming. AP Interview April 15, 2003, online <>

Christy, John R., 2003b. Kyoto Global Warming Treaty’s Impact on Ohio’s Coal Dependent Communities. Written Testimony to U.S. House Committee on Resources, 13 May 2003, online <>

Christy, John R., 2003c. Guest Commentary on Climate Change. Electricity Daily Vol. 20, No. 105, June 2, 2003, online <>

Christy, John R., 2003d. Climate Research: Response to ‘Wanted Scientific Leadership on Climate’ by Pielke, Jr. and Sarewitz. Issues in Science and Technology, Spring 2003, pp. 9-10.

Christy, John R. and Roy W. Spencer, 2003. Reliability of satellite data sets. Science Vol. 301, No 5636, pp.1046-1047, August 22, 2003.

Christy, John R., Roy W. Spencer, W.B. Norris, W.D. Braswell and D.E. Parker, 2003. Error estimates of Version 5.0 of MSU/AMSU bulk atmospheric temperatures. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, Vol. 20, pp. 613-629, 2003.

Christy, John R. and William B. Norris, 2004. What may we conclude about global tropospheric temperature trends? Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L06211, doi:10.1029/2003GL019361, March 31, 2004

Chylek, Petr, Jason E. Box, Glen Lesins, 2004. Global Warming and the Greenland Ice Sheet. Climatic Change Vol. 63, No1-2, pp. 201-221, March 2004

Cliver, E. W., Boriakoff, V., Feynman, J., 1998. Solar variability and climate change: Geomagnetic aa index and global surface temperature. Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1035-1038.

Cobb, Kim M., Christopher D. Charles, Hai Cheng and R. Lawrence Edwards, 2003. El Niño/Southern Oscillation and tropical Pacific climate during the last millennium. Nature 424, 271 - 276, doi:10.1038/nature01779 , July 17, 2003

Cook, Edward R. et al., 2004. Long-Term Aridity Changes in the Western United States. Science Express, published online October 7, 2004

Cook, Edward R., Jan Esper, and Rosanne D. D'Arrigo, 2004. Extra-tropical Northern Hemisphere land temperature variability over the past 1000 years. Quaternary Science Reviews Vol. 23, No 20-22, pp. 2063-2074, November 2004, available online September 23, 2004 

Courtney, Richard S., 2000. Global Warming: How It All Began, online <

Courtney, Richard S., 2001. Crystal balls, virtual realities and 'storylines'. Energy and Environment, vol.12, No.4, 2001

Cox, Christopher M. and Benjamin F. Chao, 2002. Detection of a Large-Scale Mass Redistribution in the Terrestrial System Since 1998. Science Vol. 297, No 5582, pp. 831-833, August 2, 2002

Crutzen, Paul J., 2004. The growing urban heat and pollution island effect: Impact on chemistry and climate. Atmospheric Environment In press March, 23, 2004

Damon, Paul E. and Peter Laut, 2004. Pattern of strange errors plagues solar activity and terrestrial climatic data. EOS, Transactions Vol. 85, No 39, pp. 370-374, September 28, 2004

Dana, L. et al., 2001. Paleobotanical Evidence for Near Present-Day Levels of Atmospheric CO2 During Part of the Tertiary. Science, Vol. 292, No. 5525, pp. 2310-2313, June 22, 2001

Davey, C. A. and R.A.Pielke Sr, 2004: Microclimate exposures of surface-based weather stations - implications for the assessment of long-term temperature trends. Bull. Amer Meteor. Soc., online <>

Dawson, A.G., Elliott, L., Mayewski, P., Lockett, P., Noone, S., Hickey, K., Holt, T., Wadhams, P. and Foster, I. 2003. Late-Holocene North Atlantic climate "seesaws", storminess changes and Greenland ice sheet (GISP2) palaeoclimates. The Holocene 13: 381-392.

Delmotte, M., J. Chappellaz, E. Brook, P. Yiou, J. Barnola, C. Goujon, D. Raynaud, and V. Lipenkov, 2004. Atmospheric methane during the last four glacial-interglacial cycles: Rapid changes and their link with Antarctic temperature, J. Geophys. Res. – Atmospheres Vol. 109, D12104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004417, June 24, 2004

Desprat, S., Goñi, M.F.S. and Loutre, M.-F. 2003. Revealing climatic variability of the last three millennia in northwestern Ibera using pollen influx data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 213: 63-78, 2003

Dessai, Suraje and Mike Hulme, 2003. Does climate policy need probabilities? Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research Working Paper No. 34, August 2003, online <> (43 pages, 500KB)

Dickey, Jean O., Steven L. Marcus, Olivier de Viron and Ichiro Fukumori, 2002. Recent Earth Oblateness Variations: Unraveling Climate and Postglacial Rebound Effects. Science Vol. 298, No 5600, pp. 1975-1977, December 6, 2002

Dickey, Jean O., Steven L. Marcus, and Olivier de Viron, 2003. Coherent interannual and decadal variations in the atmosphere-ocean system, Geophys. Res. Lett. Vol. 30, No. 11, 1573, doi:10.1029/2002GL016763, June 7, 2003

Dietze, Peter, 2001. Carbon Model Calculations, online <>

Dietze, Peter, 2002. Little Warming with new Carbon Cycle Model, online <>

Dietze, Peter and Hans Erren, 2003. The Greenhouse effect should not be redefined, Energy and Environment Vol.14, No 6, pp. 921-922, December 2003

Dokken, Trond M., Andrews, J., Hemming, S., Stokes, C. and Jansen, E., 2003. Researchers discuss abrupt climate change: Ice sheets and oceans in action. EOS, Transactions, American Geophysical Union 84: 189, 193.

Dokken, Trond M., and Kerim H. Nisancioglu, 2004. Fresh angle on the polar seesaw. Nature Vol. 430, No 7000, pp. 842-843, August 19, 2004

Domonkos, Peter, Jan Kyselý, Katarzyna Piotrowicz, Predrag Petrovic, Tanja Likso, 2003. Variability of extreme temperature events in south-central Europe during the 20th century and its relationship with large-scale circulation. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 23, No 9, pp. 987-1010, July 2003 

Doney, S. C., et al., 2004. Evaluating global ocean carbon models: The importance of realistic physics. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 18, GB3017, doi:10.1029/2003GB002150, September 15, 2004 

Doran, Peter T. et al. 2002. Antarctic climate cooling and terrestrial ecosystem response. Nature Vol. 415, DOI: 10.1038/nature710, pp. 617-620, January 13, 2002.

Douglass, David H. and B. David Clader, 2002. Determination of the Climate sensitivity of the Earth to solar irradiance. GRL Vol. 29 No 16 section 33 pp.1-4, August 23, 2002

Douglass, David H., Eric G. Blackman, and Robert S. Knox, 2004. Temperature response of Earth to the Annual Solar Irradiance Cycle. Physics Letters A Vol. 323, No 3-4, pp. 315-322, March 22, 2004, online <>

Douglass, David H., Benjamin D. Pearson, and S. Fred Singer, 2004. Altitude dependence of atmospheric temperature trends: Climate models versus observation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L13208, doi:10.1029/2004GL020103, July 9, 2004, online <

Douglass, David H., Benjamin D. Pearson, S. Fred Singer, Paul C. Knappenberger, and Patrick J. Michaels, 2004. Disparity of tropospheric and surface temperature trends: New evidence. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L13207, doi:10.1029/2004GL020212, July 9, 2004, online <

Droxler, Andre W., Richard Z. Poore, and Lloyd H. Burckle (Edts), 2003. Earth’s Climate and Orbital Eccentricity: The Marine Isotope Stage 11 Question. AGU Geophysical Monograph Series Vol 137, 2003, see: <>

Eastman, J.L., Coughenour, M.B. and Pielke Sr., R.A. 2001. The regional effects of CO2 and landscape change using a coupled plant and meteorological model. Global Change Biology 7: 797-815.

Egbert, G. D. and R. D. Ray, 2000. Significant dissipation of tidal energy in the deep ocean inferred from Satellite Altimeter Data. Nature, 405: 775-8, 2000

Eklundh, Lars and Lennart Olsson, Vegetation index trends for the African Sahel 1982–1999, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(8), 1430, April 23, 2003.

EPICA community members, 2004. Eight glacial cycles from an Antarctic ice core. Nature Vol. 429, No 6992, pp. 623-628, June 10, 2004, online <>

Erren, Hans 2003. Evidence for a Stefan-Botlzmann Climate Sensitivity from Three Centuries of Summer Temperature Observations in The Netherlands. IUGG Conference Obervational and Model Estimates of Climate Sensitivity (ICDM) June 30, 2003 <>

Eschenbach, Willis, 2004. Tuvalu Not experiencing Increased Sea Level Rise. A Viewpoint in Energy & Environment Vol. 15, No 4, June 2004.

Esper, J., Cook, E.R. and Schweingruber, F.H. 2002. Low-frequency signals in long tree-ring chronologies for reconstructing past temperature variability. Science 295: 2250-2253, March 22, 2002

Esper, Jan, S. G. Shiyatov, V. S. Mazepa, R. J. S. Wilson, D. A. Graybill and G. Funkhouser, 2003. Temperature-sensitive Tien Shan tree ring chronologies show multi-centennial growth trends. Climate Dynamics, 21 (8): 699-706, 2003. Online <>

Esper Jan, D.C. Frank, and J.S. Wilson, 2004. Climate reconstructions: Low-frequency ambition and high-frequency ratification. Eos, 85, 133,120, 2004

Esper, Jan and Schweingruber, F.H. 2004. Large-scale treeline changes recorded in Siberia. Geophysical Research Letters 31: 10.1029/2003GL019178, March 16, 2004

Essenhigh, Robert H., 2001. Does CO2 really drive global warming. Chemical Innovation Vol. 31 pp. 44-46, May 5, 2001

Essenhigh, Robert H., 2003. Prediction from an Analytical Model of: The Standard Atmosphere Profiles of Temperature, Pressure, and Density with Height for the Lower Atmosphere; and Potential for Profiles-Perturbation by Combustion Emissions. Paper No.03F-44: Western States Section Combustion Institute Meeting: Fall (October) 2003

Essex, Christopher and McKitrick, Ross, 2002. TAKEN BY STORM. The Troubled Science, Policy and Politics of Global Warming. Key Porter Books, November 2002 <>

Fagan, Brian: "The Little Ice Age: How Climate Made History, 1350-1850", Basic Books, 2001

Fagan, Brian: "The Long Summer: How Climate Changed Civilisation". Basic Books, 2003.

Ferreyra, Eduardo, 2003. Heat Wave in Europe: Mystery Unveiled, online <>

Feynman, J. and Ruzmaikin, A. 1999. Modulation of cosmic ray precipitation related to climate. Geophysical Research Letters 26: 2057-2060.

Fleitmann, Dominik, Stephen J. Burns, Manfred Mudelsee, Ulrich Neff, Jan Kramers, Augusto Mangini and Albert Matter, 2003. Holocene Forcing of the Indian Monsoon Recorded in a Stalagmite from Southern Oman. Science Vol. 300, No 5626, pp. 1737-1739, June 13, 2003 

Fleitmann, Dominik, , Stephen J. Burns, Ulrich Neff, Manfred Mudelsee, Augusto Mangini and Albert Matter, 2004. Palaeoclimatic interpretation of high-resolution oxygen isotope profiles derived from annually laminated speleothems from Southern Oman. Quaternary Science Reviews Vol. 23, No 7-8, pp. 935-945, April 2004

Foster, Bob, 2002. Critique of IPCC's TAR Summary for Policymakers. October 2002, online <>

Foukal, Peter, 2003. Can Slow Variations in Solar Luminosity Provide Missing Link Between the Sun and Climate? Eos, Transactions Vol. 84, No 22, pp 205-208, June 3, 2003 

Foukal, Peter, Gerald North, and Tom Wigley, 2004. A Stellar View on Solar Variations and Climate. Science Vol. 306, No 5693, pp. 68-69, October 1, 2004

Frauenfeld, Oliver W., and Robert E. Davis, 2003. Northern Hemisphere circumpolar vortex trends and climate change implications, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D14), 4423, doi:10.1029/2002JD002958, July 29, 2003.

de Freitas, Chris R., 2002. Are Observed Changes in the Concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the Atmosphere Really Dangerous? Bulletin of Canadian Petroleum Geology Vol..50, No.2, pp. 297-327, June 2002, online <>

Gentry, D. et al., 2003. Precise dating of Dansgaard–Oeschger climate oscillations in western Europe from stalagmite data. Nature 421, 833 - 837, February 20, 2003

Geological Perspectives of Global Climate Change. 2001. AAPG Studies in Geology # 47 Edited by Lee C. Gerhard, William E. Harrison and Bernold M. Hanson Published by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists in collaboration with the Kansas Geological Survey and the AAPG Division of Environmental Geosciences; contributions by the U.S. Geological Survey, March 2001

Gerhard, Lee C., 2004. Climate Change: Conflict of observational science, theory, and politics. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin Vol. 88, No 9, p. 1211-1220, September 2004

Giese, Benjamin S., S. C. Urizar, and N. S. Fučkar, 2002. Southern Hemisphere Origins of the 1976 Climate Shift. Geophys. Res. Lett. – Atm., 29 (2), 1014, doi:10.1029/2001GL013268, January 17, 2002

Gildor, Hezi, Adam H. Sobel, Mark A. Cane, and Raymond N. Sambrotto, A role for ocean biota in tropical intraseasonal atmospheric variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(9), 1460, doi:10.1029/2002GL016759, May 3, 2003.

Goklany, Indur M., 2003. Relative Contributions of Global Warming to Various Climate Sensitive Risks, and Their Implications for Adaptation and Mitigation.

Energy & Environment Vol. 14, pp. 797-822, 2003

González-Rouco, F., Hans von Storch, and E. Zorita, 2003. Deep soil temperature as proxy for surface air-temperature in a coupled model simulation of the last thousand years, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No 21, p. 2116, doi:10.1029/2003GL018264, November 12, 2003, online <>

Goode, Philip R., J. Qiu, V. Yurchyshyn, J. Hickey, M. Chu, E. Kolbe, C. Brown, and S. Koonin. Earthshine observations of the earth’s reflectance GRL Vol. 28, No 9, pp. 1671–1674, 2001

Govindan, R.B., Vyushin, Dmitry, Bunde, Armin, Brenner, Stephen, Havlin, Shlomo and Schellnhuber, Hans-Joachim, 2002. Global Climate Models Violate Scaling of the Observed Atmospheric Variability. Physical Review Letters 89, 028501, July 8, 2002

Graf, Hans-F., 2004. The Complex Interaction of Aerosols and Clouds. Science Perspective Vol. 303, No 5662, pp. 1309.1311, February 27, 2004

Gray, Vincent R., 2000. The Cause of Global Warming. Energy & Environment Vol 11 pp. 613-629, 2000

Gray, Vincent R., 2002. The Greenhouse Delusion: A Critique of 'Climate Change 2001'. Multi- Science Publishing Co Ltd, UK, 2002 

Gray, Vincent R., 2003. Regional Temperature Change. Updated April 2, 2003, online <>

Green, Kenneth, Tim Ball, and Steven Schroeder, 2004. The Science Isn’t Settled. The Limitations of Global Climate Models. Public Policy Sources No 80, Frasier Institute, June 2004, online <>

Grudd, H., K.R. Briffa, W. Karlén, .S. Bartholin, P.D. Jones and B. Kromer, 2002. A 7400-year tree-ring chronology in northern Swedish Lapland: natural climatic variability expressed on annual to millennial timescales, Holocene, 12, 657–665, 2002.

Gupta, Anil K., David M. Anderson and Jonathan T. Overpeck, 2003. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature Vol. 421, No 6921, pp. 354-357, January 23, 2003

Hanna, Edward, and John Cappelen, 2003. Recent cooling in coastal southern Greenland and relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation. GRL Vol. 30, No 3, 1132, doi:10.1029/2002GL015797, February 12, 2003, online <>

Hanna, Edward, Trausti Jónsson and Jason E. Box, 2004. An analysis of Icelandic climate since the nineteenth century. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 24, No 10, pp. 1193-1210, July 26, 2004

Hannah, J., 2004. An updated analysis of long-term sea level change in New Zealand, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03307, doi:10.1029/2003GL019166, February 12, 2004

Hansen, James E., Mki. Sato, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, K. Asamoah, K. Beckford, S. Borenstein, E. Brown, B. Cairns, B. Carlson, B. Curran, S. de Castro, L. Druyan, P. Etwarrow, T. Ferede, M. Fox, D. Gaffen, J. Glascoe, H. Gordon, S. Hollandsworth, X. Jiang, C. Johnson, N. Lawrence, J. Lean, J. Lerner, K. Lo, J. Logan, A. Luckett, M.P. McCormick, R. McPeters, R. Miller, P. Minnis, I. Ramberran, G. Russell, P. Russell, P. Stone, I. Tegen, S. Thomas, L. Thomason, A. Thompson, J. Wilder, R. Willson, and J. Zawodny 1997. Forcings and chaos in interannual to decadal climate change. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 25679-25720.

Hansen, James E, Sato, Makiko, Ruedy, Reto, Lacis, Andrew and Oinas, Valdar, 2000. Global warming in the twenty-first century: An alternative scenario. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97, 9875-9880, 2000, online <

Hansen, James E., 2000. An Open Letter on Global Warming. NaturalScience October 26, 2000, online <

Hansen, James E. 2001. Climate Forcings in the Industrial Era. Updated February 1, 2001

Hansen, James E. et al. 2001. A closer look at United Sates and global surface temperature change. GRL Vol. 106, No. D 20, pp. 23,947-23,963, October 27, 2001, online <>

Hansen, James E. and Sato, Makiko, 2001. Trends of measured climate forcing agents. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Vol. 98, Issue 26, pp.14778-14783, December 18, 2001

Hansen, James E., 2002. A brighter future. Climatic Change 52: 435-440, online <>

Hansen, James E. & M. Sato, L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, D. Koch, I. Tegen, T. Hall, D. Shindell , B. Santer, P. Stone, T. Novakov, L. Thomason, R. Wang , Y. Wang , D. Jacob, S. Hollandsworth, L. Bishop, J. Logan, A. Thompson, R. Stolarski, J. Lean, R. Willson, S. Levitus, J. Antonov, N. Rayner, D. Parker and J. Christy, 2002. Climate Forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 Simulations. GRL Vol. 107, No D18, 4347, Doi 10.1029/2001JD001143, September 20, 2002, online <>

Hansen, James E., 2003. Can we defuse the global warming time bomb? NaturalScience, posted August 1, 2003, online <> or <> (1.4 MB)

Hansen, J., and L. Nazarenko 2003. Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 100, doi:10.1073/pnas.2237157100. PNAS Vol. 101, No 2, pp. 423-428, January 13, 2004, online <>

Hansen, James E., 2004. Defusing the global warming time bomb. Scientific American Vol. 290, No. 3, pp. 68-77, March 2004, online <>

Hanson, Howard, 2003. Down from the Ivory Tower: Climate Science Faces the Real World. The Scientific World Journal Vol. 3, pp. 354-356, 2003

Harrison, Kevin G., 2004. Soil carbon CO2 fertilization factor: The measure of an ecosystem's capacity to increase soil carbon storage in response to elevated CO2 levels. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. Vol. 5, No 5, Q05002, doi:10.1029/2003GC000686, May 7, 2004, online <

Haug, Gerald H., et al., 2003. Climate and the Collapse of Maya Civilization. Science Volume 299, Number 5613, pp. 1731-1735, March 14, 2003

Hecht, Laurence, 2001. Is a New Ice Age Under Way? 21st Century Science & Technology Magazine 2/2001

Helama, Samuli, 2004. Millennia-long tree-ring chronologies as records of climate variability in Finland. Academic dissertation. Yliopistopaino. Helsinki. 54 pages, June 2004, online <>

Hendy, Erica L. et al., 2002. Abrupt Decrease in Tropical Pacific Sea Surface Salinity at End of Little Ice Age. Science Vol. 295, No 5559, pp. 1511-1514, February 22, 2002

Hodell, D.A. et al., 2001. Solar forcing of drought frequency in the Maya Lowlands. Science, 292, pp. 1367-1370, May 18, 2001.

Holmgren, Karin, Lee-Thorp, J.A., Cooper, G.R.J., Lundblad, K., Partridge, T.C., Scott, L., Sithaldeen, R., Talma, A.S. and Tyson, P.D. 2003. Persistent millennial-scale climatic variability over the past 25,000 years in Southern Africa. Quaternary Science Reviews Vol. 22, No 21-22, pp. 2311-2326, November-December 2003

Hong, Y.T., Hong, B., Lin, Q.H., Zhu, Y.X., Shibata, Y., Hirota, M., Uchida, M., Leng, X.T., Jiang, H.B., Xu, H., Wang, H. and Yi., L. 2003. Correlation between Indian Ocean summer monsoon and North Atlantic climate during the Holocene. Earth and Planetary Science Letters Vol. 211, No 3-4, pp. 371-380, June 30, 2003

Hoyt, Douglas V. and Kenneth H. Schatten, 1997. The Role of the Sun in Climate Change. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, EU, 1997

Hoyt, Douglas V., 2004. Critical Examination of Climate Change, online <>

Hug, Heinz, and Barrett, Jack, 2001. Hug & Barrett versus IPCC. A paper presented at the DECHEMA colloquium, in Frankfurt on 11th October 2001, reviewed December 2001, online <

Hurrell, James W., Yochanan Kushnir, Martin Visbeck, and Geir Ottersen (Eds.), 2003: The North Atlantic Oscillation: Climate Significance and Environmental Impact, AGU Geophysical Monograph Series No 134, 2003.

Huybers, Peter, and Carl Wunsch, 2003. Rectification and precession signals in the climate system, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 30, No 19, p. 2011, doi:10.1029/2003GL017875, October 14, 2003.

Idso, Sherwood B, and Lowell D. Stott., among others, 2003. The effect of long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the intrinsic water-use efficiency of sour orange trees. Chemosphere, 50, 217-222, 2003

Inamdar, Anand K., V. Ramanathan, and Norman G. Loeb, 2004. Satellite observations of the water vapor greenhouse effect and column longwave cooling rates: Relative roles of the continuum and vibration-rotation to pure rotation bands, J. Geophys. Res. - Atmospheres, 109, D06104, doi:10.1029/2003JD003980, March 20, 2004

Irizarry-Ortiz, Michelle M., Guiling Wang, and Elfatih A. B. Eltahir, 2003. Role of the biosphere in the mid-Holocene climate of West Africa, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D2), 4042, January 16, 2003.

Jackson, Charles, Mrinal K. Sen, and Paul L. Stoffa, 2004. An Efficient Stochastic Bayesian Approach to Optimal Parameter and Uncertainty Estimation for Climate Model Predictions. Journal of Climate. Vol. 17, No. 14, pp. 2828–2841, July 2004

Jacobeit, J., H. Wanner, J. Luterbacher, C. Beck, A. Philipp, K. Sturm, 2003. Atmospheric circulation variability in the North-Atlantic-European area since the mid-seventeenth century. Climate Dynamics Vol. 20, No 4, pp. 341-352, February 2003

Jacobeit, J., R. Glaser, J. Luterbacher, and H. Wanner, 2003. Links between flood events in central Europe since AD 1500 and large-scale atmospheric circulation modes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30 (4), 1172, doi:10.1029/2002GL016433, February 22, 2003.

Jacobson, Mark. Z., 2001. Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols. Nature 409: 695-7, February 8, 2001

Jaworowski, Zbigniew, 2003. "The Ice Age is coming - Solar cycles, not CO2 determine climate. 21st Century Science & Technology, pp. 52-65, Winter 2003-2004, online <>

Jelbring, Hans, 1998 Wind Controlled Climate. Paleogeophysics & Geodynamics, Stockholm University, 1998.

Jin, Menglin, 2004. Analysis of Land Skin Temperature Using AVHRR Observations. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society Vol. 85, No. 4, pp. 587–600, April 2004, online <>

Jo, Myung-Hee, Hyoung-Sub Kim, Hyang-Hee Um and Joon-Bum Kim, 2002. The extraction method of surface temperature in agricultural area using Satellite Remote Sensing and GIS. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Portal, Korea, online < >

Kahl et al., 1993. Absence of evidence for greenhouse warming over the Arctic Ocean in the past 40 years. Nature, 361, 335-337, 1993

Kalnay, Eugenia and Ming Cai, 2003. Impact of urbanization and land-use change on climate. Nature 423, 528 - 531, doi:10.1038/nature01675, May 29, 2003, full text online <>

Karlén, Wibjörn, 1998. Climate variations and the enhanced greenhouse effect. Ambio 27: 270-274.

Karlén, Wibjörn, 2001. Global Temperature Forced by Solar Irradiation and Greenhouse Gases? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. Ambio, Vol. 30, September 6, 2001

Kaser, Georg, Douglas R. Hardy, Thomas Mölg, Raymond S. Bradley and Tharsis M. Hyera, 2004. Modern glacier retreat on Kilimanjaro as evidence of climate change: observations and facts. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 24, No 3, pp. 329-339, March 2, 2004, online <>

Kasischke, Eric S., and Joyce E. Penner, 2004. Improving global estimates of atmospheric emissions from biomass burning. J. Geophys. Res. – Atm., 109, D14S01, doi:10.1029/2004JD004972, July 21, 2004 

Kauppi, Pekka E., 2003. New, low estimate for carbon stock in global forest vegetation based on inventory data. Silva Fennica Vol. 37, No 4, pp. 451-457, December 2, 2003

Keeling, Charles D. and Whorf, Timothy P., 2000. The 1,800-year oceanic tidal cycle: A possible cause of rapid climate change. PNAS 97(8): 3814 - 3819, April 11, 2000

Kerr, Richard A., 2003. Making Clouds Darker Sharpens Cloudy Climate Models. Science Vol. 300, No. 5627, pp. 1859-1860, June 20, 2003

Kininmonth, William, 2004. Climate Change: A Natural Hazard. Multi-Science Publishing Co. Ltd

Klyashtorin, Leonid B., 2001. Climate Change and Long-Term Fluctuations of Commercial Catches. The Possibility of Forecasting. FAO fisheries technical paper No. 410. Rome 2001.

Klyashtorin, Leonid B. et al., 2002. Fluctuations of Global Climatic Indices and the Earth Rotation Velocity. Geoecology, Engineering Geology, Hydrogeology, Geocryology, Proceedings of Russian Academy of Sciences series, Moscow. 2002

Klyashtorin, Leonid B. and Alexey A. Lyubushin, 2003. On the coherence between dynamics of the world fuel consumption and global temperature anomaly. Energy & Environment Vol.14, No 6, pp. 773-782, December 2003

Knox, Robert S., 2004. Non-radiative energy flow in elementary climate models. Physics Letter A Vol. 329, No 3, pp. 250-256, August 23, 2004

Knappenberger, P.C., Michaels, P.J., and R.E. Davis, 2001. The nature of observed climate changes across the United States during the 20th century. Climate Research, 17, 45-53, July 2001

Kodera, K. 2002. Solar cycle modulation of the North Atlantic Oscillation: Implication in the spatial structure of the NAO. Geophysical Research Letters 29: 10.1029/2001GL014557.

Kodera, Kunihiko and Yuhji Kuroda, 2003. Regional and hemispheric circulation patterns in the northern hemisphere winter, or the NAO and the AO, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(18), 1934, doi:10.1029/2003GL017290, September 20, 2003.

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., Alexei A. Grigoryev and Costas A. Varotsos, 2002d. Environmental Disasters. Anthropogenic and Natural. Springer & Praxis Publishing, 2002

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., Vladimir F. Krapivin and Costas A. Varotsos, 2003. Global Carbon Cycle and Climate Change. Springer & Praxis Publishing 2003

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., 2003. Uncertainties of Global Climate Change Observations and Simulation Modelling. Presentation at World Climate Change Conference, Moscow Sept 29 – Oct 3, 2003

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., 2004. Uncertainties of Global Climate Change Observations and Simulation Modelling. Published April 14, 2004 online <> 

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., 2004. Key Aspects of Global Climate Change. Energy & Environment Vol. 15, No. 3, pp. 467-501, 2004 

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., Kim S. Losev, Maria D. Ananicheva and Irina V. Chernokova, 2004. Stability of Life on Earth. Principal Subject of Scientific Research in the 21th Century. Springer & Praxis Publishing 2004

Kondratyev, Kirill Ya., Vladimir F. Krapivin, V.P. Savinykh and Costas A. Varotsos, 2004. Global Ecodynamics and Human Society. Springer & Praxis Publishing 2004

Kristjánsson, J. E.; Staple, A.; Kristiansen, J.; Kaas, E., 2002. A new look at possible connections between solar activity, clouds and climate. , Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(23), 2107, 10.1029/2002GL015646, December 7, 2002.

Kukla, George and Joyce Gavin, 2003. Milankovitch climate reinforcements. Global and Planetary Change Vol. 40, No. 1-2, pp.27-48, January 2004, <doi:10.1016/S0921-8181(03)00096-1> Available online 13 September 2003. 

Kukla, George, 2004. Milankovitch's Dating of Pleistocene Climates Or Into A Glacial by Global Warming. Presentation at the Milutin Milankovitch Anniversary Symposium: Paleoclimate and the Earth Climate System, in Belgrade, Serbia, 30 August – 2 September 2004.

Kärner, Olavi, On nonstationarity and antipersistency in global temperature series, J. Geophys. Res., 107(D20), 4415, doi:10.1029/2001JD002024, October 18, 2002, online <>

de Laat, A. T. J., and A. N. Maurellis, 2004. Industrial CO2 emissions as a proxy for anthropogenic influence on lower tropospheric temperature trends, Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 31, L05204, doi:10.1029/2003GL019024, March 11, 2004, online <

Labohm, Hans, Dick Thoenes and Simon Rozendaal, 2004. Man-Made Global Warming: Unravelling a Dogma. Multi-Science Publishing Co Ltd, UK, ISBN 0906522 25 0, January 2004.

Landscheidt, Theodor, 2002. Solar Wind Near Earth: Indicator of Variations in Global Temperature. European Space Agency Special Publication 463, 497-500, October 2002. online < Wind.html>

Landscheidt, Theodor, 2003. New Little Ice Age Instead of Global Warming. Energy & Environment Vol. 14. No 2&3, pp. 327-350, April 11, 2003, online <>

Landscheidt, Theodor, 2003. Variations in CO2 Growth Rate Associated with Solar Activity, online <>

Landscheidt, Theodor, 2003. New ENSO Forecasts Based on Solar Model, online <>

Lau, K. M., and H. T. Wu, 2003. Warm rain processes over tropical oceans and climate implications, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(24), 2290, doi:10.1029/2003GL018567, December 1, 2003

Launiainen, Jouko et al., 2002. Atmospheric reflections to the Baltic Sea Ice climate. 4th Workshop on Baltic Sea Ice Climate. 22-24 May 2002, Norrköping, Sweden

Lavallée, Daniel, and Hugo Beltrami, 2004. Stochastic modeling of climatic variability in dendrochronology. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L15202, doi:10.1029/2004GL020263, August 6, 2004

Legates, David R., 2002. Limitations of Climate Models as Predictors of Climate Change. National Center for Policy Analysis, May 16, 2002, online <

Legates, David R., 2004. Breaking the “Hockey Stick”. National Center for Policy Analysis Brief Analysis No. 478, July 12, 2004, online <> and <>

Leroux, Marcel, 1998. Dynamic Analysis of Weather and Climate. J. Wigley. Original: La dynamique du temps et du climat. 1996, Paris.
see : <>

Leroux, Marcel, 2002. Global Warming - mythe ou réalite? Annales de Géographie No 624 mars-avril 2002 pp.115-137, in French. - 2003. Global Warming: Myth or Reality? Energy and Environment, Vol. 14, No 2&3, pp. 297-322, March 11, 2003 

Li, Changsheng & J. Qiu, S. Frolking, X. Xiao, W. Salas, B. Moore III, S. Boles, Y. Huang, and R. Sass, 2002. Reduced methane emissions from large-scale changes in water management of China's rice paddies during 1980–2000, GRL 29(20), 1972, October 24, 2002.

Li, Zhanqing, Thomas P. Ackerman, Warren Wiscombe and Graeme L. Stephens, 2003. Have clouds darkened since 1995? Science Vol. 302, No 5648, pp. 1151-1152, November 14, 2003 online <

Lindstrom, G. and Bergstrom, S. 2004. Runoff trends in Sweden 1807-2002. Hydrological Sciences Journal 49: 69-83

Lindzen, Richard S. and C. Giannitsis, 2002. Reconciling observations of global temperature change. GRL 29, 23, 10.1029/2001GL014074, June 26, 2002,
online <>

Lindzen, Richard S., 2002. Do Deep Ocean Temperature Records Verify Models? GRL, 29, 10.1029/2001GL014360, April 30, 2002, online <

Lindzen, Richard S., 2004. CLIMATE ALARM - Where Does it Come From? Houston Forum September 9, 2004, online <>

Liski, Jari, Alexander V. Korotkov, Christopher F. L. Prins, Timo Karjalainen, David G. Victor, Pekka E. Kauppi, 2003. Increased Carbon Sink in Temperate and Boreal Forests. Climatic Change Vol. 61, No 1-2, pp. 89-99, November 2003

Lockwood, Mike, R. Stamper and M. N. Wild, 1999. A doubling of the Sun's coronal magnetic field during the past 100 years. Nature Vol. 399, No 6735, pp. 437-439, June 3, 1999, See <>

Loehle, Craig, 2004. Climate change: detection and attribution of trends from long-term geologic data. Ecological Modelling Vol. 171, No 4, pp. 433-450, February 1, 2004

Loehle, Craig, 2004. Using Historical Climate Data to Evaluate Climate Trends: Issues of Statistical Inference. Energy & Environment Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 1-10, 2004

Lohmann, Gerrit et al., 2004. Climate signature of solar irradiance variations: analysis of long-term instrumental, historical, and proxy data. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 24, No 8, pp. 1045-1056, published online June 8, 2004, online <>

Lomborg, Bjorn, 2001. The Skeptical Environmentalist. Cambridge University Press, 2001

Lomborg, Bjorn. Global Crises, Global Solutions. (in press2004)

Loutre, Marie-France and André Berger, 2003. Marine Isotope Stage 11 as an analogue for the present interglacial. Global and Planetary Change, 36, pp. 209-217. DOI: 10.1016/S0921-8181(02)00186-8.

Lyubushin Alexey A., Pisarenko V.F., Bolgov M.V. and Rukavishnikova T.A., 2003. Collective effects investigation within river's runoff time series. Russian Meteorology and Hydrology No.7, pp.76-88, 2003.

MacCracken, Michael, Joel Smith and Anthony C. Janetos, 2004. Reliable regional climate model not yet on horizon. Nature Vol. 429, No 6993, p. 699, June 17, 2004

Manuel, Oliver K. et al., 2003b. Superfluidity in the Solar Interior: Implications for Solar Eruptions and Climate. Journal of Fusion Energy Vol. 21, pp. 193-198, 2003, online <>

Markowicz, Krzysztof M., P.J. Flatau, M.V. Ramana, P.J. Crutzen and V. Ramanathan, 2002. Absorbing Mediterranean aerosols lead to a large reduction in the solar radiation at the surface. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(20), 1968, doi:10.1029/2002GL015767, October 23, 2002, online <>

Marland, Gregg, R.A. Pielke, Sr., M. Apps, R. Avissar, R.A. Betts, K.J. Davis, P.C. Frumhoff, S.T. Jackson, L. Joyce, P. Kauppi, J. Katzenberger, K.G. MacDicken, R. Neilson, J.O. Niles, D. Dutta S. Niyogi, R.J. Norby, N. Pena, N. Sampson, and Y. Xue, 2003: The climatic impacts of land surface change and carbon management, and the implications for climate-change mitigation policy. Climate Policy, online <>

Marsden, David and Richard E. Lingenfelter, 2003. Solar activity and cloud opacity variations: A modulated cosmic ray ionization model. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences Vol. 60, No 4, pp. 626-636, February 2003

Marsh, Nigel and Svensmark, Henrik, 2003. Galactic cosmic ray and El Niño–Southern Oscillation trends in International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project D2 low-cloud properties J. Geophys. Res. Vol. 108 No. D6 10.1029/2001JD001264, 29 March 2003, online <>

Marshall Institute, 2001. Climate Science and Policy: Making the Connection. Online <>

Martilli, Alberto, Yves-Alain Roulet, Martin Junier, Frank Kirchner, Mathias W. Rotach and Alain Clappier, 2003. On the impact of urban surface exchange parameterisations on air quality simulations: the Athens case. Atmospheric Environment Vol. 37, No 30, pp. 4217-4231, September 2003

Maslin, Mark, 2004. Gas Hydrates: A Hazard for the 21th Century. Issues in Risk Science No 3, pp. 1-22, May 1, 2004

Mathiesen, M. Mikhel, 2000. Global Warming in a Politically Correct Climate. How Truth Became Controversial. Writers Club Press, Inc, Lincoln, NE, 2000

Mauquoy, D., van Geel, B., Blaauw, M., Speranza, A. and van der Plicht, J. 2004. Changes in solar activity and Holocene climatic shifts derived from 14C wiggle-match dated peat deposits. The Holocene Vol. 14, pp. 45-52, 2004

Maurellis, Ahilleas N., R. Lang. J.E. Williams, W.J. van der Zande, K. Smith, J. Tennyson and R.N. Tolchenov, 2003. The impact of new water vapor spectroscopy on satellite retrievals, in `Weakly Interacting Molecular Pairs: Unconventional Absorbers of Radiation in the Atmosphere' C. Camy-Peyret and A. Vigasin (Eds.), NATO SCIENCE series IV, No 27, pp. 259-270. Kluwer, Dordrecht, 2003, online <>

Maurellis, A.N. and J. Tennyson, 2003. The climatic effects of water vapour. Physics World May 2003 pp. 29-33, online <>

McIntyre, Stephen and Ross McKitrick, 2003. Corrections to the Mann et. al. (1998) Proxy Data Base and Northern Hemispheric Average Temperature Series. Energy & Environment Vol. 14, No 6, pp. 751-771, October 28, 2003, online <>

McIntyre, Stephen, and Ross McKitrick, 2004. Verification of multi-proxy paleoclimatic studies: a case study. Presentation PP53A-1380 at the 2004 AGU Fall Meeting 13-17 December 2004 in San Francisco, California.

McKitrick, Ross and Patrick J. Michaels, 2004. A test of corrections for extraneous signals in gridded surface temperature data. Climate Research Vol. 26, No 2, pp. 159-173, May 25, 2004, see <>

McPhaden, Michael J., and Dongxiao Zhang, 2004. Pacific Ocean circulation rebounds. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020727, September 16, 2004 

Menon, Surabi, James Hansen, Larissa Nazarenko and Yunfeng Luo, 2002. Climate Effects of Black Carbon Aerosols in China and India. Science Vol. 297, No. 2290, pp. 2250-2253, September 27, 2002 <>

Mercurio, Ed. The Effects of Galactic Cosmic Rays on Weather and Climate on Multiple Time Scales. Online pages updated continuously: <>

Michaels, Patrick J. and Balling, Robert C., 2000. The Satanic Gases. Cato Institute, US, 2000

Michaels, Patrick.J., Knappenberger, P.C., Frauenfeld, O.W., and R.E. Davis. 2002. Revised 21st century temperature projections. Climate Research, 23, pp. 1-9, December 2002

Michaels, Patrick J., 2003. Do Facts Matter Any More? Energy & Environment Vol. 14, No 2&3, pp. 323-326, April 11, 2003

Michaels, Patrick J., Ross McKitrick, and P. C. Knappenberger, 2004. Economic signals in global temperature histories. Paper presented at 14th Conference on Applied Climatology, Am. Meteorol. Soc., Seattle, Wash. Extended abstract online <>

Michaels, Patrick J., 2004. Meltdown: The Predictable Distortion of Global Warming by Scientists, Politicians, and the Media. Cato Institute September 2004

Miller, Laury and Bruce C. Douglas, 2004. Mass and volume contributions to twentieth-century global sea level rise. Nature Vol. 428, No 6981, pp. 406-409, March 25, 2004

Minnis, Patrick, J. Kirk Ayers, Rabindra Palikonda, and Dung Phan, 2004. Contrails, Cirrus Trends, and Climate. Journal of Climate Vol. 17, No 8, pp. 1671-1685, April 15, 2004

Minobe, Shoshiro, 1997. A 50–70 year climatic oscillation over the North Pacific and North America. GRL Vol. 24, No 6, pp. 683–686, 1997, online <>

Minobe, Shoshiro, 2004. Detailed SST Structures of the North Pacific Climatic Regime Shift in the 1920s and 1940s Based on 1-Degree SST Data Compiled From COADS and Kobe Collection. Power Point Presentation at the CRCES-IPRC Workshop on Decadal Climate Variability, February 24, 2004 (ppt) More data downloadable from: <>

Moene, Asmunn, 2001. Stochastic Climate Changes. Comments on the July 2001 draft of the IPCC synthesis report. Online <>

Morrill, Carrie, Overpeck, Jonthan T. and Cole, Julia E., 2003. A synthesis of abrupt changes in the Asian summer monsoon since the last deglaciation. The Holocene 13, 4, pp. 465–476, 2003, online <>

Moy, Christopher M. et al., 2002. Variability of El Niño/Southern Oscillation activity at millennial timescales during the Holocene epoch. Nature Volume 420, No. 6912, November 14, 2002

Mudelsee, Manfred, Michael Börngen, Gerd Tetzlaff and Uwe Grünewald, 2003. No upward trends in the occurrence of extreme floods in central Europe. Nature Vol. 425, No 6954, pp. 166-169, doi:10.1038/nature01928, September 11, 2003

Munk, Walter, 2002. Twentieth century sea level: An enigma. äPNAS Vol. 99, No. 10, pp. 6550-6555, May 14, 2002, online <>

Munk, Walter, 2003. Ocean freshening, sea level rising. Science Vol. 300, No 5628, pp. 2041-2043, June 27, 2003.

National Research Council of the National Academies, 2003. Understanding Climate Change Feedbacks. Panel Report. The National Academies Press Washington, D.C., 2003, online <>

National Research Council of the National Academies, 2003. Estimating Climate Sensitivity: Report of a Workshop. The National Academies Press Washington, D.C., 2003, online <>

Neff, U et al., 2001. Strong coherence between solar variability and the monsoon in Oman between 9 and 6 kyr ago. Nature Vol. 411, pp. 290-293, May 17, 2001.

NOAA NCDC Workshop: Reconciling Vertical Temperature Trends, October 27-29, 2003, online <>

North Greenland Ice Core Project Andersen et al., 2004. High-resolution record of Northern Hemisphere climate extending into the last interglacial period. Nature Vol. 431, No 7005, pp. 147-151, September 9, 2004

Okonski, Kendra (Ed.), 2003. Adapt or Die: The science, politics and economics of climate change. Profile Books, London, December 2003, see <>

Oliver, Fred L., 2001. Beware of Global Cooling, online <>

Pallé Bago, Enric, Philip R. Goode, P. Montanes-Rodrıguez and Steven E. Koonin, 2004. Changes in the earth’s reflectance over the past two decades. Science Vol. 304, No 5675, pp. 1299-1301, May 28, 2004

Pallé, Enric, C. John Butler, and Keran O'Brien, 2004. The possible connection between ionization in the atmosphere by cosmic rays and low level clouds. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, in press 2004, preprint online <>

Pan, Zaitao, R. W. Arritt, E. S. Takle, W. J. Gutowski Jr., C. J. Anderson, and M. Segal, 2004. Altered hydrologic feedback in a warming climate introduces a “warming hole”. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17109, doi:10.1029/2004GL020528, September 10, 2004 

Pelletier, Jon D., 2002. Natural variability of atmospheric temperatures and geomagnetic intensity over a wide range of time scales. PNAS Vol. 99, pp. 2546-2553, February 19, 2002, full text online <

Pielke Jr., Roger A. and Daniel Sarewitz. 2003. Wanted: Scientific Leadership on Climate. Issues in Science and Technology. Winter 2002-03 pp. 27-30

Pielke Jr., Roger A., 2004. What Is Climate Change? Issues in Science and Technology, Perspectives, pp. 1-4, Summer 2004

Pielke, Roger A., Sr., Marland, G., Betts, R.A., Chase, T.N., Eastman, J.L., Niles, J.O., Niyogi, D., and Running, S.W., 2002. The influence of land-use change and landscape dynamics on climate system: Relevance to climate-change policy beyond the radiative effect of greenhouse gases. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 360, pp. 1705-1719, 2002, online <>

Pielke, Roger A., Sr., 2004: Ten Overlooked Issues in the IPCC and US National Assessments of Climate Change. Presentation at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, March 26, 2004, online <>

Pierrehumbert, Raymond T., 2004. High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation. Nature Vol. 429, No 6992, pp. 646-649, June 10, 2004

Polyakov, Igor V., Alekseev, G.V., Bekryaev, R.V., Bhatt, U., Colony, R.L., Johnson, M.A., Karklin, V., Makshtas, A.P., Walsh, D. and Yulin, A.V., 2002. Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming. Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 29, No 18, 10.1029/2001GL011111, September 29, 2002, online <>

Polyakov, Igor, David Walsh, Igor Dmitrenko, Roger L. Colony, and Leonid A. Timokhov, 2003. Arctic Ocean variability derived from historical observations. GRL 30:6, 1298, March 22, 2003, online <>

Polyakov, Igor V., Roman V. Bekryaev, Genrikh V. Alekseev, Uma Bhatt, Roger L. Colony, Mark A. Johnson, Alexander P. Makshtas and David Walsh, 2003. Variability and trends of air temperature and pressure in the maritime Arctic, 1875 – 2000. Journal of Climate Vol. 16, No 12, pp. 2067-2077, June 15, 2003, online <>

Pozo-Vázquez, D., J. Tovar-Pescador, S. R. Gámiz-Fortis, M. J. Esteban-Parra, and Y. Castro-Díez, 2004. NAO and solar radiation variability in the European North Atlantic region, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L05201, doi:10.1029/2003GL018502, March 6, 2004

Przybylak, Rajmund, 2000. Temporal and spatial variation of surface air temperature over the period of instrumental observations in the Arctic. International Journal of Climatology 20: 587-614.

Przybylak, Rajmund, 2002. Changes in seasonal and annual high-frequency air temperature variability in the Arctic from 1951 to1990. International Journal of Climatology Volume 22, Issue 9, pp. 1017-1032, 2002

Przybylak, Rajmund, 2003. The climate of the Arctic. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003. No. of pages: xi +270. ISBN 1-4020-1134-2

Rahmstorf, Stefan, 2003. Timing of abrupt climate change: A precise clock, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(10), 1510, doi:10.1029/2003GL017115, May 21, 2003, online <>

Ramanathan, V. and P. J. Crutzen, Atmospheric Brown Clouds. Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, No 28, pp. 4033-4035, September 2003, online

Randall, David, Steven Krueger, C. Bretherton, J. Curry, Duynkerke, M. Moncireff, B. Ryan, D. Starr, M. Miller, W. Rossow, G. Tselioudis, and Bruce Wielicki, 2003. Confronting models with data: The GEWEX Cloud Systems Study. BAMS Vol. 84, No 4, pp. 455-469, doi:10.1175/BAMS-84-4-455, April 2003, online <>

Randall, David et al., 2003. Breaking the Cloud Parametrization Deadlock. BAMS Vol. 84, No 11, pp. 1547-1564, November 2003

Rein, Bert, Andreas Lückge, and Frank Sirocko, 2004. A major Holocene ENSO anomaly during the Medieval period. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L17211, doi:10.1029/2004GL020161, September 11, 2004 

Rial, José A., Pielke Sr., Roger A., Martin Beniston, Martin Claussen, Joseph Canadell, Peter Cox, Hermann Held, Nathalie de Noblet-Ducoudre, Roland Prinn, James Reynolds and José D. Salas, 2003. Nonlinearities, feedbacks, and critical thresholds within the earth's climate system. Climatic Change, online <>

Rial, José A., 2004. Abrupt climate change: chaos and order at orbital and millennial scales. Global and Planetary Change Vol. 41, No 2, pp. 95-109, April 2004, online <

Robinson, Walter A., Reto Reudy and James E. Hansen, 2002. General circulation model simulations of recent cooling in the east-central United States. GRL Vol. 107, No. D24, 4748, December 19, 2002, online <>

Roderick, Michael L. and Graham D. Farquhar, 2002. The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past 50 years. Science Vol. 298, No 5597, pp. 1410-1411, November 15, 2002

Roderick, Michael L., and Graham D. Farquhar, 2004. Changes in Australian pan evaporation from 1970 to 2002. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 24, No 9, pp. 1077-1090, published online June 29, 2004

Roderick, Michael L. and Graham D. Farquhar, 2002. The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past 50 years. Science Vol. 298, No 5597, pp. 1410-1411, November 15, 2002

Roderick, Michael L. and Graham D. Farquhar, 2002. The cause of decreased pan evaporation over the past 50 years. Science Vol. 298, No 5597, pp. 1410-1411, November 15, 2002

Ruddiman, William F., 2003. The Anthropogenic Greenhouse Era Began Thousands of Years Ago. Climatic Change Vol. 61, No 3, pp. 261-293; December 2003, online <>

Sandweiss, Daniel H., Kirk A. Maasch , Fei Chai, C. Fred T. Andrus and Elizabeth J. Reitz, 2004. Geoarchaeological evidence for multidecadal natural climatic variability and ancient Peruvian fisheries. Quaternary Research Vol. 61, No 3, pp. 330-334, May 2004

Sato, Makiko, James Hansen, Dorothy Koch, Andrew Lacis, Reto Ruedy, Oleg Dubovik, Brent Holben, Mian Chin, and Tica Novakov, 2003. Global atmospheric black carbon inferred from AERONET, PNAS published online May 13, 2003, 10.1073/pnas.0731897100, PNAS Vol. 100, No 11, pp. 6319-6324, May 27, 2003, online <>

Scafetta, Nicola and Bruce J. West, 2003. Solar flare intermittency and the Earth's temperature anomalies. Physical Review Letters 90, 248701, June 20, 2003

Schadt, Christopher W., Andrew P. Martin, David A. Lipson and Steven K. Schmidt, 2003. Seasonal Dynamics of Previously Unknown Fungal Lineages in Tundra Soils. Science Vol. 301, No 5638, pp. 1359-1361, September 5, 2003 

Schubert, Siegfried D. et al., 2004. On the Cause of the 1930s Dust Bowl. Science Vol. 303, No 5665, pp. 1855-1859, March 19, 2004

Seager, Richard, D. S. Battisti, J. Yin, N. Gordon, N. Naik, A. C. Clement and M. A. Cane, 2002. Is the Gulf Stream responsible for Europe’s mild winters? Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Vol. 128, Part B, No 586, pp. 2563-2586, October 2002, online <>

Seidel, Dian J., J.K. Angell, J. Christy, M. Free, S.A. Klein, J.R. Lanzante, C. Mears, D. Parker, M. Schabel, R. Spencer, A. Sterin, P. Thorne, and F. Wentz, 2004. Uncertainty in signals of large-scale climate variations in radiosonde and satellite upper-air temperature datasets. Journal of Climate Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 2225–2240, June 2004, online <>

Seidel, Dian J., and John R. Lanzante, 2004. An assessment of three alternatives to linear trends for characterizing global atmospheric temperature changes. J. Geophys. Res. – Atm., 109, D14108, doi:10.1029/2003JD004414, July 29, 2004, online <>

Sen, Zekai and Abdüsselam Altunkaynak, 2004. Fuzzy awakening in rainfall-runoff modelling. Nordic Hydrology Vol. 35, No 1, pp. 31-43, January 2004, online <>

Shabalova, Marina V. and Weber, Susanne L., 1998. Seasonality of low-frequency variability in early-instrumental European temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters Vol. 25, No 20, pp. 3859-3862, October 15, 1998., online <>

Sharma, Mukul, 2002. Sun's Magnetic Activity Varies In 100,000-Year Cycles. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 199: 459-472, June 10, 2002 

Sharp, Gary D., 2003. Future climate change and regional fisheries: a collaborative analysis. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper No. 452, Rome 2003, online <> and <>

Shaviv, Nir, 2002. The Milky Way's Spiral Arms and Ice Age Epochs on Earth. Physical Review Letters 2002, online <>

Shaviv, Nir and Jan Veizer, 2003. Celestial driver of Phanerozoic Climate? GSA Today Vol. 13, No. 7, pp. 4-10, July 2003, online <>

Shaviv, Nir J., 2003. Towards a Solution to the Early Faint Sun Paradox: A Lower Cosmic Ray Flux from a Stronger Solar Wind. Submitted to Journal of Geophysical Research, July 8, 2003, online <>

Shi, Neng, and Luwen Chen, 2004. Evolution and features of global land June-August dry/wet periods during 1920-2000. International Journal of Climatology Vol. 24, No 12, pp.1483-1493, published online October 7, 2004

Singer, S. Fred, 1999. Hot Talk, Cold Science: Global Warming's Unfinished Debate. The Independent Institute, Oakland, CA. Second edition, 1999

Singer, S. Fred, 2002. Understanding Science’s Limitations. Keynote address for the Conference The Role of Science in Environmental Policy Making. Brussels, January 16, 2002

Singer, S. Fred, 2002. How likely is a human-caused climate catastrophe? Presentation at London Conference “Environmental Catastrophes and Recovery in the Holocene” in Brunel University Aug 29 - Sept 2, 2002

Singer, S. Fred., 2002. A close look at temperature trends from surface stations and proxy data. US Climate Change Science Planning (CCSP) Workshop, December 3-5, 2002, online <>

Soon, Willie, Baliunas, Sallie L., Robinson Arthur B. and Robinson, Zachary W., 2001a. Global Warming. A Guide to the Science. The Fraser Institute. Centre for Studies in Risk and Regulation. Vancouver British Columbia Canada 2001

Soon, Willie, Baliunas, Sallie L., Idso, Sherwood B, Kondratyev, Kirill Ya. and Posmentier, Eric S. 2001b. Modeling climatic effects of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions: unknowns and uncertainties. Climate Research Vol. 18: 259-275, November 2, 2001

Soon, Willie and Baliunas, Sallie, 2003a. Proxy climatic and environmental changes of the past 1000 years. Climate Research 23, pp.89-110, January 31, 2003

Soon, Willie and Sallie Baliunas, 2003b. Global Warming. Progress in Physical Geography Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 448–455, August 27, 2003

Soon, Willie, Sallie Baliunas, Craig Idso, Sherwood Idso and David R. Legates, 2003. Reconstructing Climatic and Environmental Changes of the Past 1000 Years: A Reappraisal. Energy & Environment Vol. 14, No 2&3, pp. 233-289, April 11, 2003, online <>

Soon, Willie W.-H. and Steven H Yaskell. The Maunder Minimum and the Variable Sun-Earth Connection. World Scientific Publishing Co, 296 p. January 2004
see: <>

Soon, Willie W.-H., David R. Legates, and Sallie L. Baliunas, 2004. Estimation and representation of long-term (>40 year) trends of Northern-Hemisphere-gridded surface temperature: A note of caution, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L03209, doi:10.1029/2003GL019141, February 14, 2004

Soux, A, J.A. Voogt and T.R. Oke, 2004. A Model to Calculate what a Remote Sensor `Sees' of an Urban Surface. Boundary-Layer Meteorology Vol. 111, No 1, pp. 109-132, April 2004

Spencer, Roy W., and John R. Christy, 2003. Global temperature Report 1978-2003, published December 8, 2003, online <>

Stanhill, G. and Cohen, S. 2001. Global dimming: a review of the evidence for a widespread and significant reduction in global radiation with discussion of its probable causes and possible agricultural consequences. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107: 255-278.

Stott, Lowell, Christopher Poulsen, Steve Lund and Robert Thunell, 2002. Super ENSO and Global Climate Oscillations at Millennial Time Scales. Science Vol. 297, No 5579, pp. 222-226, July 12, 2002

Thejll, Peter, Bo Christiansen and Hans Gleisner, 2003. On Correlations between the North Atlantic Oscillation, geopotential heights and geomagnetic activity. GRL Vol. 30 No. 6, 29 March 2003

Tiljander, Mia, Matti Saarnisto, Antti E. K. Ojala and Timo Saarinen, 2003. A 3000-year palaeoenvironmental record from annually laminated sediment of Lake Korttajärvi, central Finland. Boreas, Vol. 26, pp. 566–577. Oslo. ISSN 0300-9483, December 2003

Trenberth, Kevin E. and David P. Stepaniak, 2003. Covariability of Components of Poleward Atmospheric Energy Transports on Seasonal and Interannual Timescales. Journal of Climate Vol. 16, No 22, pp. 3691-3705, November 15, 2003, online <

Trenberth, Kevin E. and David P. Stepaniak, 2003. Seamless Poleward Atmospheric Energy Transports and Implications for the Hadley Circulation. Journal of Climate Vol. 16, No 22, pp. 3706-3722, November 2003, online <>

Udelhofen, P.M. and R. Cess, 2001. Cloud cover variations over the United States: An influence of cosmic rays or solar variability? GRL Vol. 28 pp.2617-2620, 2001

Usoskin, Ilya G., Kalevi Mursula, Sami K. Solanki, Manfred Schüssler and Gennady A. Kovaltsov, 2002. A physical reconstruction of cosmic ray intensity since 1610, J. Geophys. Res, v. 107(A11), SSH 13-1-6, doi: 10.1029/2002JA009343, November 16, 2002. Online <>

Usoskin, Ilya G., Sami K. Solanki, Manfred Schüssler, Kalevi Mursula, and Katja Alanko, 2003. Millennium-scale sunspot number reconstruction: Evidence for an unusually active Sun since the 1940s. Physical Review Letters Vol. 91, No 21, November 21, 2003, online <>

Usoskin, Ilya G. and Kalevi Mursula, 2003. Long-Term Solar Cycle Evolution: Review of Recent Developments, Solar Physics (in press, 2003).
Online <>

Usoskin, Ilya G. et al., 2003. Reconstruction of solar activity for the last millennium using 10Be data, Astronomy & Astrophysícs, (in press, 2003)
Online <>

Usoskin, Ilya G., Nigel Marsh, G.A. Kovaltsov, Kalevi Mursula, O.G. Gladysheva, 2004. Latitudinal dependence of low cloud amount on cosmic ray induced ionization. GRL 31, L16109, doi:10.1029/2004GL019507, August 21, 2004, online <>

Wadhams, Peter, and Walter Munk, 2004.Ocean freshening, sea level rising, sea ice melting. GRL Vol. 31, L11311, doi:10.1029/2004GL020039, June 12, 2004.

Vakulenko, N.V., Kotlyakov, V.M., Monin, A.S. and Sonechkin, D.M., 2004. Evidence for the leading role of temperature variations relative to greenhouse gas concentration variations in the Vostok ice core record. Doklady Earth Sciences (Russia) Vol. 397, No 5, pp. 663-667, June-July 2004

van Geel, Bas, 2004. ‘Palaeoclimatology, changing solar activity and climate change’. Presentation at the Fourth BBOS Spring Symposium ‘History and Future of Climate Observations’ May 12, 2004 in Utrecht, the Netherlands, online <>

Weart, Spencer R., 2003. The Discovery of Global Warming. Harvard University Press, 2003. Online: <>

Viau, A.E., Gajewski, K., Fines, P., Atkinson, D.E. and Sawada, M.C. 2002. Widespread evidence of 1500 yr climate variability in North America during the past 14,000 yr. Geology 30: 455-458.

Wielicki, Bruce A. et al., 2002. Evidence for Large Decadal Variability in the Tropical Mean Radiative Energy Budget. Science Vol. 295 No. 5556 pp. 841-844, February 1, 2002

Willson, Richard C. and Mordvinov, Alexander V., 2003. Secular total solar irradiance trend during solar cycles 21–23. GRL Vol. 30, No 5, 1199, doi:10.1029/2002GL016038, March 4, 2003

Winsor, Peter, 2001. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Remained Constant during the 1990s. Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 28, pp. 1039-1041, 2001

Visbeck, Martin, 2002. The Ocean's Role in Atlantic Climate Variability" Science Vol. 297, No 5590, pp. 2223-2224, September 27, 2002

Visbeck, Martin et al. (Eds.), 2003. The North Atlantic Oscillation, Climatic Significance and Environmental Impact. AGU Geophysical Monograph No 134, 2003 (pdf AGU 134 NAO)

Visbeck, M., E. Chassignet, R. Curry, T. Delworth, B. Dickson and G. Krahmann, 2003: The Ocean's Response to North Atlantic Oscillation Variability, "The North Atlantic Oscillation" edited by J.W. Hurrell, Y. Kushnir, G. Ottersen and M. Visbeck (Eds), AGU monograph, 134, pp. 113-146, 2003, online <>

Wojick, David E., 2003. The New View of Natural Climate Variation. Fundamental Climate Science Issues Raised In 6 Major National Academy of Science Studies. January, 2003, online <> and <>

Wojick, David E., 2003. An Assessment of the Strategic Plan of the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. - Key Uncertainties, Milestones and Issues in the CCSP, December 2003, online <>

von Storch, Hans, Eduardo Zorita, Julie Jones, Yegor Dimitriev, Fidel González-Rouco, and Simon Tett, 2004. Reconstructing Past Climate from Noisy Data. Science Vol. 306, No 5696, pp. 679-682, October 22, 2004

Voogt, James A. and T.R. Oke, 2003. Thermal remote sensing of urban climates. Remote Sensing of Environment Vol. 86, No 3, pp. 370-384, August 15, 2003 

Wright, Jason T., 2004. Do We Know of Any Maunder Minimum Stars? Submitted to Astrophysical Journal June 16, 2004, online <>

Wu, Peili, Richard Wood, and Peter Stott, 2004. Does the recent freshening trend in the North Atlantic indicate a weakening thermohaline circulation?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L02301, doi:10.1029/2003GL018584, January 20, 2004

Wunsch, Carl, 2000. Moon, Tide and Climate. Nature Vol. 405, No 6788, pp. 743-4, June 15, 2000

Wunsch, Carl, 2000. On sharp spectral lines in the climate record and the millennial peak. Paleoceanography 15: 417-424.

Wunsch, Carl. 2003. Quantitative Estimate of the Milankovitch-Forced Contribution to Observed Climate Change. Published online August 27, 2003, online <>

Yoo, JC. and D'Odorico, P. 2002. Trends and fluctuations in the dates of ice break-up of lakes and rivers in Northern Europe: the effect of the North Atlantic Oscillation. Journal of Hydrology 268: 100-112.

Yu, Fangqun, 2002. Altitude variations of cosmic ray induced production of aerosols: Implications for global cloudiness and climate. JGR Vol. 107, No A7, pp. SIA 8-1 - SIA 8-10, July 19, 2002

Zahn, Rainer, 2003. Global change: Monsoon linkages. Nature Vol. 421, No 6921, pp. 324 - 325, January 23, 2003

Zhou, Liming, Tucker, C.J., Kaufmann, R.K., Slayback, D., Shabanov, N.V. and Myneni, R.B. 2001. Variations in northern vegetation activity inferred from satellite data of vegetation index during 1981-1999. JGR Vol. 106, No D 17, pp. 20,069-20,083, 2001

Zhou, Liming, Robert E. Dickinson, Yuhong Tian, Jingyun Fang, Qingxiang Li, Robert K. Kaufmann, Compton J. Tucker and Ranga B. Myneni, 2004. Evidence for a significant urbanization effect on climate in China. PNAS Published online before print June 17, 2004, online <>